Humans are naturally gifted with intelligence in their brains. It is the human brain that create machines. The ability of machines to think and mimic on the lines of a human brain is termed artificial intelligence. It is a human intelligent brain that created an artificially intelligent brain in machines, so over and above all, human intelligence scores more than human intelligence.
Science and technology growth in India
Man invented computers to ease his tasks. The growth and revolution in computer knowledge developed by leaps and bounds, creating inroads into explored areas, reduced time taken to perform tasks and much more. India has also significantly progressed in the digital way.
India was once known as a cattle land, where agriculture was most predominant with time and higher revolution in science and technology enabled tools, we see exceptional growth everywhere.
India has given some of the best computer engineers in the world. India has some of the best technology enable innovation products and incubation centres in the world. Our classrooms are technology enabled, markets rely on technology, railways, buses and Airplanes drive on technological fast wheels.
India is doing big business in both the software and hardware part of computer technology. Mobile technology has significantly impacted the whole of population. Technology and its growth has given very good and higher benefits to the Indian economy, at the same time helped terrorists in acquiring greater help for their underworld activities as well.
Growth of technology for security
DRDO has been an organization that has given enormous contribution in terms of developing robots for ensuring the country’s security. Robots in Indian armies are used for military operations. Drones are also used for the purpose.
Along with this, intelligence gathering tools, autonomous weapons and cyber operations using AI are built using technology enabled systems. Using high precision and upgraded high level critical technologies, the security of a country is taken care of.
Narrow and general artificial intelligence
Narrow artificial intelligence is the specific application of AI for only some narrowed down tasks. It could possibly be the application of AI for performing a single specific operation with excellent outcomes. The expertise could be so high as to even go far from human precision and handling. Simple tasks come under the category of narrow AI applications. Customer service is one such application area.
General artificial intelligence is creating a robot using AI that would match and carry all qualities just like a human. In short, general AI is more like creating a human robot, that will have capabilities and functional aspects just like a human mind. All areas of reasoning, analysing,etc. are expected to be inbuilt in these kind of robots. Research is on the fast track to enable building of such robots but the day is yet to come when it will fully become a reality.
A recursive function is one which keeps repeating itself infinite times. In areas of AI, a code that is written in the AI enabled robot is called a recursive one if it has the ability to perform a repetitive or recursive functionality in order to self-improve the code by itself. The aim of a recursive program is to develop super intelligent in robots.
Let us now compare this with the traditional intelligence built in robots. Earlier, robots were instilled with AI but made sure that they went through change/transformation only with human intervention. There was no built code or design that allowed a robot to turn itself into a super intelligent system and outperform its own capabilities.
With the entry of recursive self-improvement techniques, robots could thus prove to be very risky and hazardous to society. The intention of developing super intelligence could prove useful only when the application is in the right areas. Uncontrolled and unmanned out growth of super intelligence could only do more harm than good.
Two concept can be well understood in this area. Hard take-off is recursive AI means a program/code that is super improving by leaps and bounds, in greater magnitude that is out of question in human capacity.
A task could simply become a standing threat to human life on earth if there was even a situation that could lead to an uncontrolled hard take-off. On the other hand, a soft take-off simply means a slow-paced recursive development of a code, in a controlled environment with slow and reasonable evolution.
Intelligence explosion and human intellect
It is the human intellect that has paved way for great progress in science and technology in every sphere of life. We cannot lead life without the use of gadgets. Our lives have turned into digital super systems. So, basically the creation of AI was to create human-like systems that could actually help humans to a great extent and explore areas that humans by themselves found difficult to set foot on.
It is the human intellect that created a working AI system that could control and replace the work of a number of men on task. The intelligence built within a robot is far greater than a normal human intelligent system. So far, the narrow AI systems have been performing exceptionally well in their areas of applications. Be it sound recognition, speech recognition, etc, they have been very truthful at every step.
But when it comes to an uncontrolled use like autonomous weapons, the capability of the AI system could have far reaching effects and could surpass the human. So, the creation of AI systems is thus necessary but with conditions applicable.
The explosion of intelligence should not be so outrageous and out of the bounds such that human lose control over their functions, leading to a human-made crisis situation. Technology in the right hands could prove beneficial to human-friendly applications of AI, otherwise not.
Risks associated with AI
As much as AI enabled robots could prove useful to mankind, the risks involved with them is also equally high. If we look at the raw materials used for the composure or creation of robots, they are all chemically high tolerant and reactive elements in nature. The high grade usage of these elements could not do well for our surroundings or environment in general.
The use of plastics is considered unsafe for the planet, so we can imagine the extent of damage these hazardous elements can bring about.
These are the physical risks associated. Other casualties include human fear of losing jobs. A single or individual robot is capable of working through many humans because they have been designed for such a task. So, in simple words the more the usage of robots in the market, higher the rate of unemployment. This could affect the country in social and economic numbers.
The most important risk involved is the unmanned and uncontrolled usage of robots. Humans have emotions and attachments, Machines don’t. They work according to their code design.
Suppose the person responsible to function a robot is absent and the AI enabled system reaches the wrong hands, then enormous amount of damage and uncontrolled exploitation of human life and loss could take place. One thing could lead to another triggering or chain reaction of events and thus blowing up an entire set-up. So, scientists and experts fear the higher risks involved in AI system.
Legal and safety concerns of AI
With recursive capabilities of AI systems gathering higher mileage, they are being questioned about that decision-making abilities. An expert working on an AI system is legally accountable for the robot he has created/manufactured. Suppose a super intelligent AI system performs a havoc situation in the wrong hands, the person involved in the creation of the robot will be legally held responsible for it.
Humans have great thinking power. But robots merely act based on their underlying code design. They take a decision based on the response received from the code written for them. Many a times in real life situations, this could not go as expected. The outcomes shown by the robot could be an impulsive reaction that was not expected out of it, leading to a series of legal actions on its man made creators.
There should be a regulation in place to check the safety norms designed for these robots. Autonomous systems display a higher need for safety elements to prevent damages in the future. Starting from workplace safety concerns to the real-time handling of robots to their environmental effects, a system need to be put in place.
People employed in this sector need to be educated about physical accidents that could occur in case of a wrong code. A machine is a machine at the end of the day, no matter the amount of intelligence it is stuffed with, governments need to regulate and keep an eye on the safety concerns of employing robots in work spots.
Misaligned goals related to AI
The creation of autonomous weapons at the outset was to build super structured military powers and help achieve greater protection for any nation. The controlled use of an autonomous weapon in a war situation could well be a boon in today’s nuclear warfare. Suppose the same tool reaches a misguided personnel, we can’t even draw conclusions on the extent of damage it could create.
The need to be clear about what exactly is wanted of AI systems should be clearly known. If AI systems are used to run freight trains or for handling customer service, we have them for their tasks right in their places. Suppose we have them for other risky operations, the programming involved should be of a greater precision too.
After the goal of creating an AI system is clear, the next task is about making the robot fitted with the AI system understand it. If a robot was designed to drive a car, all the nuances associated with safe and secure driving need to be put in place for a comfortable driving.
If even a simple thing is missed out, it could only make a miserable car journey. That means, AI system should be designed such that they deliver their task in the manner they are supposed to do or conduct.
Firstly, realising the goal of the AI robot by the human creators and next aligning the robot by the human creators and next aligning the robot in accordance with the goal will perfectly deliver desired results. Misaligned goals lead to tragedy. Human can think and all, but machines cannot. They can’t emote and understand intentions.
Technology can’t replace manpower
One of the popular reason why robots are not welcome in many spheres is due to the fear that they will replace human need. It is time we understand that robots can definitely do more physical work compared to humans. They can do work of a few hundred men in matter of a few minutes.
But they can’t understand the expression of love, fear, sympathy, attachments etc. So, whatever extent technology goes in creating a super intelligent system, a significant man power is still required to put these systems, right in place, on their designated track.
Aligning goals with the AI systems will lead to better usage of robots for human friendly tasks. If AI can emerge as the most promising technology of the future, we should not forget that it is the working of the human intellect that actually created such an enormous technology in the first place.
Artificial intelligence is the need of the hour with every nation designing and building super intelligent systems to cater to different needs and goals of their respective countries, it’s time we woke up to be served by these AI enabled robots. The values and ethics driven by these AI systems are definitely questionable.
As they say, there are two sides of a coin and only a balancing act that will put both the good with the risks associated, will help in brightening a future that is technologically enabled and secured for the mankind.