What is Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao?
The Prime Minister, Mr. Narendra Modi has announced the scheme of Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao on 22nd January 2016 at Pan. The scheme aims at saving girl child, provide them with the benefits of education and empowering the girl child. The scheme is launched to spread awareness and encourage welfare services which are intended to benefit the girl child.
The main areas to which the scheme is targeted are the states of Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Uttarakhandd, Punjab, Bihar and Delhi. In these states the crimes against girl child is maximum and their rights have been violated since a very long time.
The scheme was launched to eliminate the issue of the declining child sex ratio. Various ministries joined together for proper functioning of this scheme. These ministries who joined together are the Ministry of Women and Child Development, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, and the Ministry of Human Resource and Development. The focus was initially on those areas where the Child Sex Ratio was very low as compared to other areas in the country.
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Why Beti Bachao Beti Padhao Scheme was launched?
Since time immemorial, girl child are considered to be a burden on the family. While boys went out and played on the other side the girls were kept at home and were asked to do household work and learn to bear children. Everyone wants a boy to for their lineage and girls were killed as soon as they took birth in this world.
Traditionally girls were poisoned at the time of their birth. In modern times, with technological advancement sex selection abortion, the other name for female feticide with the help of ultra sound technology is very common now days.
The conservative and traditional families ask for abortion if they find that a girl is suppose to take birth in their family, they will terminate the pregnancy at beginning only. Due to the orthodox thinking and the advancement of technology it is very easy to abort now days. This is the sole reason why India has a low Child Sex ratio.
The term Child Sex ratio means number of girls born per thousand boys in the age group of 0 to 6 years. The data provided by the Census which took place in 2001, the gender ration in India was 927 girls per 1000 boys which were subsequently declined to 918 girls as compared to 1000 boys as per the data provided to us by the census of 2011. If we study the data, we finds that the Child Sex ratio has declined and this is not good for a country.
The declining condition of the Child Sex Ratio first came into limelight in the year 1991 at the time of the release of the national census. With various problems and violent activities against female like dowry system in India girl child is never given importance.
Like in dowry system, large amount of money and resources are needed and arranging these is not that easy for everyone, therefore, girls become burden over their family and they are not accepted as boys.
Therefore the reasons for a declining Child Sex ratio are:
- Preference for sons
- Social history of discriminating girls
- Social, cultural and religious biases
Keeping in mind these problems which happen against the girl child, the government has launched the Beti Bachao and Beti Padhao scheme.
Objectives of Beti Bachao Beti Padhao
With spreading happiness on the birth of girl child and providing education for a girl child, the following are the objectives of the scheme;
- The scheme works to prevent gender biased sec selective elimination,
- To protect the girl child and ensure their survival, and
- To ensure that the girls are getting educated and their participation in various fields.
Components of the Scheme
1. CAMPAIGNING THROUGH MASS COMMUNICATION: This campaign will undertake activities through radios and jingles in various regional languages along with Hindi language, engage various communities by mobile exhibition vans, social media and other such mediums, creating awareness among people through SMS, mails etc, and other social media platforms like Facebook, Instagram, Twitter etc should also be used for ensuring that girls are welcomes happily when they are born, to eliminate discrimination and other social evils and provide equal rights and opportunity to girls.
2. INTERVENTIONS OF VARIOUS SECTORS: The scheme comprises of three ministries which regulate the working and implementation of the scheme they are, the Ministry of Women and Child Development, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, and the Ministry of Human Resource and Development. For achieving the targets multi sectoral actions are needed at the state and district level.
Targets of the Scheme
- To improve the SRB by 10 points in the districts which are gender critical
- To reduce gender differential of children under five years of age
- To improve the nutritional status of girls
- Increase girl child enrollment in schools and secondary education
- To provide the facility of girls toilet in every school of Child Sex Ration critical districts.
- To provide safe and protective environment for girl child by implementation of Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (POSCO), 2012
- Training representatives for campaigns and mobilising activities.
Strategies adopted by Beti Bachao Beti Padhao
The data clearly show the picture of declining Child Sex Ratio and therefore to tackle this problem, multi sectoral strategy which will have the virtues of respecting, protecting and fulfilling the rights of girls and women and to stop violence against the same.
The strategies adopted by the scheme are
- Inter sectoral and inter institutional coordination
- System, agencies and institutions for dealing with gender issues and rights of a girl child
- Training and mobilizing various groups and communities
- Social mobilization
- Placing the issues of declining child sex ratio in front of the public
- To focus on gender critical districts and cities which have low Child Sex Ratio
The National Executive Committee
The government under the leadership of the Prime Minister, Mr. Narendra Modi has established a National Executive Committee for promoting the scheme of Beti Bachao Beti Padhao in the country. The function of the committee is to promote “Save Girl Child” and “to Educate Girl Child”.
Advantages of the Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao Yojana
- PREVENT FEMALE INFANTICIDE: The decline in the Child Sex Ratio is a clear indication that girls are depowered in the country. With various technical tools present in today’s world it is not very difficult to know the gender of a child who is still in womb. With the ultra sound techniques and various safe abortion techniques, the gender is determined before birth and if a girl is detected, abortion is adopted. This is also harmful for the health of the mother who is undergoing abortion. Various Non Governmental Organisations are working actively to stop such activities. Along with this the law of the country is also strengthened to eliminate these unlawful activities.
- ELIMINATE GENDER BIASNESS: Various awareness programs have been taking place since the launch of the scheme which educates the people and promote that both girl and boy are equal and they should be treated equally and should be provided with equal opportunities.
- IMPROVE GENDER RATIO: The scheme targets those states which have a low Child Sex Ratio like the states of Haryana, Rajasthan etc. The scheme keeps a check over any unlawful practices happening in these areas.
- PROMOTED WOMEN PARTICIPATION IN EDUCATION: this is one of the most important advantages of the Beti Bachao Beti Padhao Scheme which ensures that every girl in the country has access to education.
Problems in implementing Beti Bachao Beti Padhao
- ORTHODOX THINKING: India is a country where orthodox thoughts related to female feticide, Sati, child marriage and other social abused hinders the process of implementation of the scheme.
- GOVERNMENT IMPLEMENTATION: The government is actively involved in formation of various schemes but effective implementation in various fields is still a dream. They police and government is still unaware of deep rooted atrocities and this brings delay in implementation.
- MIND SET: A single initiative cannot change the mindset of the people and they remain conservative even after government taking so many efforts for spreading awareness among people through different methods.
- NEED OF CIVIC BODY: There is a need of a civic body which will support to achieve the objectives of Beti Bachao Beti Padhao Scheme.
- DOWRY: The system of dowry is prevalent in India since a very long time. In ancient times dower was considered to be gift which parents gave to their daughter for her well being and prosperity. But today, the situation has completely changed making dowry a social evil and this is one of the biggest hurdle in front of government.