Essay on Brain Drain
The movement of the workforce from developing countries to the developed ones is known as brain drain. It is the relocation or migration of human beings from one place to another.
Generally, it was concerned with low skilled or unskilled labour from Asian, African and other such countries going and working in the Gulf countries.
But since some time, even highly educated individuals with high levels of pay are migrating to countries like United States, Australia, Germany, United Kingdom, etc.
In a research study conducted, it was found that higher the level of education, higher are the chances of the individual migrating to developed countries.
The most popular occupations for brain drain include scientists, physicians, academicians and engineers. Brain Drain is also known as human capital flight. In the 1900’s, the percentage of the capable workforce lost to brain drain was 16% and it has now increased to 21%.
Brain Drain – Why does it occur?
The reasons for this migration of workers are numerous. They may be better opportunities, higher levels of pay, better standard of living, less crime, better political conditions, etc.
Inadequate infrastructure and poor living conditions can be a significant factor. Some developing countries fail to provide its people even with essential systems such as good healthcare and sanitation.
This causes major diseases and leads to congestion. There are also no proper connecting roads, and there are many flaws in the transportation system.
Unstable political conditions also act as a contributing factor. If the political environment is stable, it becomes predictable, and people feel more safe and secure in such a situation.
In developing countries, there is a lot of poverty and unemployment that exists. Due to this, the level of crime is high. Thefts are also widespread and happen almost daily. These high levels of crime cause a massive loss to the society and drive people out of the home country, to safer places. High levels of unemployment lead to scarcity of jobs.
This is an encouraging factor for educated people to go to other countries in the hope of getting better opportunities and a better life. One other reason for brain drain can be the influence of family members.
Why is Brain Drain detrimental?
Brain Drain can cause a lot of disadvantages to the home country. It can lead to hampering of economic growth. There also arises a shortage of skilled and semi-skilled workers in the host country. The host country is forced to fill these positions by expatriates who demand even higher salaries and other benefits.
Indian money is spent on educating people of India, and also when they go abroad, their fee is paid by the Indians here. But it is mostly seen that the trend is that when you study abroad, you also settle abroad.
This leads to a lot of wastage of Indian resources, including money. The gap between the rich and the poor also keeps on stretching and increases day by day.
The major hit to a country is the loss of their most talented and outstanding individuals. The state doesn’t necessarily suffer when a few individuals migrate, but when thousands of competent working individuals leave, it can cause substantial financial and economic losses leading to lower productivity and growth.
A lot of times, the people of the developed countries to where you migrate, look down upon you. They think of you as an unwelcome member to their society and that you have stolen jobs that belonged to the real citizens of that country.
Types of Brain Drain
Brain Drain is mainly categorised into two types: –
Internal Brain Drain: In this, the individual moves from one profession to another. For example, a marketing manager working in a company might change his profession line by coming into teaching. Internal brain drain includes organisational and industrial brain drain.
Organisational brain drain takes place when highly talented individuals jump from one organisation to the other. It creates losses and burdens for the organisation from which people leave. Industrial brain drain includes the movement of skilled workers from one industry to another.
External Brain Drain: This is the migration of a worker from the home country to a developed one. For example, a dentist working in India might start his or her practice in The United States. External brain drain includes geographical brain drain. It is the emigration of workers in search of higher-paying jobs and higher standards of living.
Advantages of Brain Drain
There are mainly three advantages that can be associated with brain drain. The first is that Indians that go there send remittances to their families here in the country. This increases the inflow of foreign exchange into the country.
The second advantage is that because of Indian people settling in other countries abroad, our culture, tradition and values reach those geographical regions as well and is kept alive.
The third is an individual advantage. It is that people or individuals who are worthy, get a chance to take further steps in their life which can give themselves as well as their families a better future.
Brain Drain is, no doubt a loss to the home country financially as well as economically. The home country loses out on its valued human assets to other far developed countries. It can be prevented by increasing food security, primary healthcare and sanitation services and better career and life opportunities.
Countries should follow China’s and India’s footsteps which have focused on Brain Gain instead of Brain Drain. The human assets of the country should focus on improving and uplifting their country as a whole and strive to grow the nation together.