500+ Words Essay on Earthquake
Earthquake is the shaking of the earth, which releases an immense amount of energy that creates seismic waves. These waves can be ranged from weak to strong. Some seismic waves are too weak to sense and too strong to destroy cities and create violence. The seismic activity refers to the rate and frequency of earthquakes experienced over the years.
Manifestations of the earthquakes are the shaking and the displacement of the ground. A tsunami is caused when the epicenter of a massive earthquake is displaced by strong waves. Because of the earthquake, the phenomenon of landslides and volcanic activity takes place. This can also be defined as the seismic wave that is caused by naturally or by humans.
The occurrence is mostly due to the cause of geographical faults. The other reasons include landslides, volcanic activities, nuclear tests, etc. The hypocenter is the point of the earthquake of initial ruptures, and the epicenter is the ground that lies above the hypocenter.
Types of Earthquake
Tectonic Earthquakes – Tectonic plates are the loose, cracked fragments present in the crust of the earth. These plates move slowly and gradually under the surface. The movement of the plates is in different forms. They can move towards each other, away from each other, in the sliding directions, or in a colliding way. A huge tremor occurs when these plates slide over one another. They are the reason for massive mass destruction.
Volcanic Earthquakes – Volcanic Earthquakes mostly occur after or before the phenomenon of the eruption. These can be classified into two forms
- Long-period volcanic earthquakes
- Volcano-tectonic earthquakes
The magma eruption from the earth leaves a space behind. To fill the space, the rocks displaces towards the space that results in the severe earthquakes. The cases of massive explosions occur when magma blocks the vent during the volcanic activity.
The build-up pressure inside the vent results in these disastrous explosions. Days before massive explosions, magma inside the crust undergoes rapid heat changes, and these heat fluctuations result in the movement of seismic waves, which ultimately results in the earthquake.
Explosion Earthquakes – The main reason for these kinds of explosions is nuclear testing. Men mostly trigger these earthquakes. In the year 1930, numerous small towns and villages were devasted because of the testing of nuclear weapons by the United States.
Collapse Earthquakes – They occur near underground mines and are generally smaller. In addition, these are called as mines burst. Pressures that are generated within the rocks instigate these earthquakes. These earthquakes mostly prevailed in the small towns where the underground mines are located.
Reason of Earthquakes
The quick review for the cause can be the faulting and sudden movements of tectonic plates laterally or vertically along a rupture surface. If we talk briefly, the surface of the earth is in continuous motion. The tectonic plate helps in the motion of the rocks slowly. Tectonic plates cover the vast area of the globe. Since the movement is continuous, they rub against each other, or at times, they are forced apart.
When this tectonics rubs, the motion is not smooth. From the pressure, the edges of the plate are always stuck, but the rest are in the same momentum. Therefore, the driving force distorts the edges. This phenomenon is called strain. After a while, there occurs so much pressure, which breaks the threshold of the rock to withstand. The rocks bend and break with lurching. It releases a shaking wave, which is termed as an earthquake.
Effect of Earthquakes
Ground Shaking – It is considered the most familiar experience one finds during the earthquakes. It is the series of seismic waves that hit the ground from a small to large scales. The consequences noted are the damages to the buildings, troubles in standing stable, and destruction of natural habitats in the cases of vigorous shaking.
Ground Rupture – When the wave’s movement is actually along with the fault, this leads to the total distortion of the ground. The cases for actively ground ruptures are quite rare. The surface of the earth is left with deep cracks.
Landslides – When there occurs a sustainable shaking and direct rupturing of less stable slopes, it gives rise to the phenomenon of landslides. These are quite dangerous and can produce massive destruction to the buildings, block roads, railroad lines. Besides, it can be a threat to significant habitats and lives.
Tsunamis – Tsunamis, popularly and often called tidal waves, are termed as the most hazardous event. The main cause of this is the movement of the seafloor vertically, causing a series of water waves. The speed of the Tsunami has been measured for more than 700 km/hr. This speed resembles the speed of the jet planes, and it can reach up to 27 meters.
Liquefaction, Subsidence, and Related Effects – These are the most important effects and are the reason behind the mass destruction during earthquakes. Liquefaction is defined, when the sediments are made to float in the water, which releases in the draining of the solidity of the soil. When the soil recomposes, subsidence follows. When the groundwater breaks through the surface in the form of pressurized jets, it gives rise to sand blows and volcanoes. These sprays put the buildings, railway tracks, roads in great grave danger.
Steps to control Earthquake
- When an earthquake occurs under table and door-frames are quite the right place to seek shelter.
- Try not to be in some confined areas. Run in the open area, if possible
- Take preventive measures to avoid risks from liquefaction, landslides, etc.
- Keep a check on the gas lines and pipes, after earthquakes.
- Keep a close connection with the authorities, and try to follow the instructions.
- Limited measures to be taken to prevent the damage from secondary effects. As no measures can be taken to prevent earthquakes.
- The design of the buildings should be earthquake resistant.
An earthquake is a disastrous event, which is generally faced by every country around the world. The mortality rate is increasing because of negligence at the time of earthquakes. These shakes the stable ground surface through their seismic waves, which causes buildings to collapse, disrupt transports and services.
These seismic waves even can trigger tsunamis. They mainly result from the collision of tectonic plates. Even though this is a deadly phenomenon, preventive measures can be taken to go through them safely.