500+ Words Essay on Tsunami
A tsunami is a series of fierce waves generated by the displacement of water. They occur in substantial water bodies due to earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and underwater explosions.
Tsunamis are also oftenly referred to as tidal waves. The waves are very high in magnitude as well as their length, and they can be immensely destructive.
Japan is the country which has recorded the most significant number of tsunamis. The tsunami generated in the Indian Ocean in the year 2004 is still considered as the most upsetting tsunami taking more than two hundred thousand lives. Tsunamis are quite rare in occurrence as compared to other natural disasters, but they are equally damaging.
Causes of Tsunami
The leading cause of a tsunami is attributable to an earthquake. However, even volcanic eruptions, landslides and comets or other heavenly bodies hitting the sea can be a source.
When the tectonic plates of the earth positioned under the sea are disturbed, an earthquake takes place, causing the seawater to displace and erupt in sudden waves. These waves move further and further towards the shores. They can go unnoticed in the deep ocean but become more prominent as the water becomes shallow.
Landslides are another prominent cause of a tsunami. When heavy debris falls without warning with massive force into the sea, it causes a tremendous ripple effect. This ripple effect thus, causes tidal waves to form, which ultimately rise towards the land and cause massive destruction.
During the eruption of a volcano on land, debris falls with a great thrust into the water body, causing the same ripple effect. Volcanoes can be underwater as well. They are known as submarine volcanoes. Tsunamis can further occur as a result of meteorological activity and human-made triggers.
Effects and Impact of a Tsunami
When water washes away the shores with such colossal force, it damages the sewage system and freshwater. It also causes water fit for drinking to erode and contaminate. Because of the water being stagnant and polluted, numerous diseases like malaria affect a large number of people. They become ill, and infections spread quickly.
A tsunami may even destroy nuclear plants which result in emittance of harmful radiations. These radiations are fatal to the health of every living organism. Mass evacuations become necessary in areas exposed to radiations because they can result in cancer, death and can even affect the DNA structures.
The saddest effect of a tsunami is the loss of lives in huge numbers. Tsunamis hit suddenly, with almost no warning and hence people get no time to escape it or run away. They drown, collapse, are electrocuted, etc. Tsunamis not only cause massive destruction of life but also degrade the environment in a gigantic way.
It uproots trees and destroys pipelines which lead to the release of dioxides, raw sewage and other pollutants into the atmosphere. When these hazardous pollutants are washed into the sea, they also cause unbearable damage to the aquatic underwater life.
When the waves of a powerful tsunami smash the shores, they destroy trees, cars, buildings, telephone lines, pipelines and other man-made equipment into bits and pieces.
Poverty rises in areas which get most affected by the wrath of tsunamis. The governments are also able to do little for their betterment immediately due to the high funding requirement and expenses.
Ways to reduce the risks of a Tsunami
The government can invest in building strong and high protective infrastructure which can withstand the force of a tsunami. The length should be so tall, that the most upper wave of the tsunami cannot over top it. Also, heavy construction and livelihood activities in tsunami-prone areas can be avoided.
The local authorities can install an efficient and fast early warning system. This would help to get all the people on alert. This way, more and more people would evacuate or leave the areas of danger, and human life destruction could be minimised.
Educating people and making them aware of the effects and impact of a tsunami is exceptionally crucial. They should be taught about the early warning signals of a tsunami and how to identify them. They should also learn how to be fully prepared in tough times like these instead of panicking and rapidly running around.
Planting the coastal regions and boundaries with trees such as Mangroves which can absorb tidal wave energy can be another option. These can help to reduce the impact of a tsunami and curb the levels of destruction caused.
Some of the Worst Tsunamis in History
A 9.1 magnitude earthquake caused a terrible tsunami on 16th December 2004 on the coast of Sumatra, Indonesia. The waves were as tall as 50 feet. The tsunami was responsible for destruction amounting up to 10 billion US Dollars and took the lives of two hundred and thirty thousand people.
On 11th March 2011, a 9.0 magnitude earthquake caused a tsunami with waves as high as 10 meters. It swept off the east coast of Japan, resulting in the death of nearly 18,000 people. More than four hundred thousand people were also displaced and remain away from their homes. The tsunami also led to a destruction of the nuclear power plant which caused radiations to rise. The damages amounted to more than 300 billion US Dollars.
The tsunami that occurred on 27th august 1883, in Indonesia was actually the result of a volcanic eruption. The volcanic eruption itself was accountable for 2000 deaths cause while the tsunami recorded a death toll of around 40,000 people. The lengths of the waves were as high as 37 meters and they not only swept away buildings and humans but also cities and towns.
Tsunamis are a natural disaster which can result in massive destruction to human beings as well as the environment. They are caused by factors that may not be in our hands, but we can take measures to curb its destruction.