500+ Words Essay on Urbanisation
Demographically urbanization means shifting of a larger proportion of people from rural areas to urban areas or cities. It is also referred to as a process in which a rural area is transformed into urban areas.
Any place with a minimum population of 5000, density not less than 400 persons per square kilometre & 75% or more of the working population engaged in non-agricultural activities is said to be urban areas.
The non-agricultural activities may include other forms of work like manufacturing, trading, services etc. which is significantly contributing to the economy of the country.
Urbanization is not only the movement of the population but also the migration of attitudes, beliefs, values & behaviour. It is a continuous process which has been observed all over the world.
It is also considered as one of the characteristics of a developing economy. However, many challenges have surfaced due to this.
Causes of Urbanisation
A rapid trend in urbanization is observed mainly in developing countries like India, which is reflected in the growing population in cities. In the last couple of decades, the number of cities has also increased all over the country.
- Increase in Population: As the birth rate of urban areas is comparatively way higher than the death rate, results in a natural increase in population which ultimately supports the tremendous growth of urbanisation.
- Migration: Migration of people during the partition of India has added for this cause significantly. After partition, rural uprooted people started settling down in urban areas for better survival options.
- Economic Opportunities: With the growth in the industrial sector, business & trade for better & stable job opportunities people who were struggling with poverty are moving to urban areas. The farmers for whom it is getting stressful day by day with the unpredictable seasonal changes are moving to cities in search of better jobs, as farming is no more a profitable source of income.
- Connectivity: The accessibility to different parts of the country as well as worlds gets way more comfortable due to its ultra-fast mobility & transportation facilities like metro, aeroplanes etc. It also helps in saving time of travel.
- Lifestyle: Few people prefer urban areas for better lifestyle skipping the conventional way of living. It includes easy access to recreational activities like movies, clubs, live concerts, shopping at malls etc.
- Standard of Living & Facilities: A far more developed infrastructure with all the modern facilities which adds to the comfort of living has attracted more people to choose urban areas. Better medical & educational facilities are vital to the movement of population to cities. It offers instant & quality health facilities which were almost next to impossible in rural areas. Cities have always been centre of technical institutions & universities giving opportunity for high-quality education.
- Political Causes: Many people get forced to leave rural areas in political unrest & end up in urban areas in search of food & shelter.
- Extension of boundary: With an extension of boundaries of cities & towns, more & more rural areas are gradually getting included in urban areas.
Urbanization in India
The measurement of the degree of urbanization is quite essential for India. Urbanization has taken the first seat post-independence & is at its paramount now.
According to 1901 census, the headcount of the population residing in urban areas of India was 11.4%, which increased to 28.53% according to 2001 census and crossing 30% as per 2011 census, standing at 31.16%.
According to the World Bank in 2017, the numbers increased to 34%. As per a survey by the UN State of the World Population report in 2007, by 2030, 40.76% of country’s population is expected to reside in urban areas.
The world has analysed that, India, along with China, Indonesia, Nigeria, and the United States, will lead the world’s urban population surge by 2050.
Economic development & urbanization are very closely related. It has helped some areas to emerge as a centre for industrial & trading activities. In India, the coefficient of correlation between the proportion of the urban population to the total population and the level of per capita income is estimated at 0.5, which is significant.
Consequences of Urbanization
Benefits: In comparison to rural areas, urban areas have come up with efficient availability of essential & necessary amenities like shelter, food, electricity & water. Accessibility to mobility, transportation & important services like education, health, entertainment is quite easy.
Urban areas offer better employment opportunity with development in IT & manufacturing sector, industries, trade. The people in cities well enjoy the benefits of all the technological environment. Any available new technology is first available in cities only.
Problems: Rapid increase in urbanization has posed many problems; one of those is an increase in slum areas & a decrease in the standard of living even in urban areas. More people moving to cities has resulted in overcrowded cities with people living in unsafe conditions like in illegal buildings. Unemployment of both skilled & unskilled workers is also surfacing in the cities slowly.
Increase in pollution rate & more extended traffic jams is one of the results of overpopulation in cities. A massive outflow of people has also resulted in a decrease in the economy of rural areas.
Exploitation by of unorganised sector has also surfaced in the last decade. Several illegal & violent acts like murder, robbery, rapes etc. has also gone up with the increase in urbanisation.
To sum up, urbanization leads to the economic development of the country with an increase in per capita income & efficiency of providing basic amenities like shelter, education, health services etc. It also helps in dealing with two significant challenges, i.e. poverty & unemployment.
However, this rapid urbanization has also led to overcrowding in cities as absorbing power of Indian cities are quite less, reflecting various evil sides of the same.
A decrease in the standard of living even in urban areas, safety, illegal works, pollution is some of the major concerns. The government must be vigilant to the rapid urbanisation which needs to be addressed with proper planning.