500+ Words Essay on Forest
Forests are the home to about millions of creatures. They are surrounded by the beauty of woods, long tress with the limitless sky over them, gently blowing breeze and many more heart-warming things. They also provide many other useful things.
Forests are entangled part of our ecosystem. They contain trees, shrubs, grasses, etc. They are covered with trees and plants and offer a comfortable environment for wildlife to live in.
Types of Forest
India is covered with various types of forests. From the rain forest in the south to the pastures in the north, from the deserts in the west to the evergreen forests in the east. There is a diverse range of forest in India. Based on nature, composition, and type of climate forest are divided into different types. Types of the forest include-
1. Coniferous Forest
Coniferous Forest stays green all year long and have trees with needle-like leaves. These forests are found across the Northern Hemisphere and also in certain places of Southern Hemisphere. They grow in climates where there are short summers and long winters. Coniferous Forests have two layers. The first layer is called the canopy layer, which is made up of the tallest trees, and the second is called the undergrowth layer, which has little plant life due to very little sunlight and poor soil.
2. Evergreen Forest
The evergreen forest have evergreen trees that remain full of leaves and are tall and hardwood types throughout the year. They usually occur in areas receiving more than 200 cm of rainfall and have a hot climate. Rosewood, mahogany, and ebony are some of the trees found there. Evergreen forests are around the Western Ghats in states such as Kerala and Karnataka.
2. Wet Evergreen Forest
Wet evergreen forest have tall, straight evergreen trees with an underpinning trunk that helps them to stay upright during a storm. They grow in the area having a temperature of about 25°-27°C and rainfall up to 250 cm annually. Wet evergreen is found in the south around the Western Ghats and all around the north-eastern region.
Semi-evergreen forest are a mixture of the wet evergreen trees and the moist deciduous trees. They are compact and filled with trees of both types. Semi-evergreen forests are found in the Western Ghats, Andaman, and the Eastern Himalaya.
4. Deciduous Forest
Tropical Deciduous forest, commonly known as Monsoon forest, are the most widespread forest. They have trees that lose their leaves seasonally. As seasons change, the colours of the leave also change. In India, they grow in the states of Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Orissa, and parts of Maharashtra.
5. Thorn Forest
The Thorn Forest have stunted trees with thorny bushes, and roots spread deep underground. Trees remain leafless for most of the year. They are found in areas with temperatures around 25 to 30 degrees, and rainfall less than 70 cm. The Thorn Forests are found in the semi-arid areas of Gujarat, Rajasthan, and Madhya Pradesh.
Benefits of Forest
We cannot underestimate how important forests are to us. We depend on forests for many things, from oxygen to the wood. Significant benefits of the forest include-
Source – Forests provide us with water, food, and fuel. They give us raw materials to make medicines, cosmetics, and detergents.
Habitat and employment – Forests provide habitats to a large number of animal species. They are home to 80% of the wildlife, and they form the source of livelihood for many human settlements, including 60 million native people.
Forests are the largest storehouses of carbon – Trees keep the earth cool by absorbing carbon dioxide reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Plants need carbon dioxide for photosynthesis. They protect us from global warming. They generate atmospheric conditions that promote regular rainfall. During floods, they help the ground by absorbing water that improves the fertility of the soil.
What is Deforestation?
Deforestation means to remove trees and make space for something else. This can be for agriculture or using that space for fuel or construction. However, much land is converted for agriculture and grazing; roads are constructed through the forests for shortcuts. Forests cover a significant part of the earth’s land.
Reasons for Deforestation
- Deforestation occurs mainly to make way for grazing.
- It is a fact that humans lit fires to make space for agriculture, timber harvesting, and to make way for crops. This led to deforestation.
- Cleaning of forests for oil plantations also causes deforestation.
Effects of Deforestation
- Many freshwater come from the forest, and the loss of trees can affect the quality of water.
- Trees also absorb carbon dioxide and give oxygen, one of the main elements to live. Deforestation can increase the level of carbon dioxide in the environment.
- Removing forests increases greenhouse gas emissions.
Steps were taken by the Indian Government to Stop Deforestation
The Government of India has been putting a lot of effort to protect the forest. It has taken measures to protect the forest and to increase the area of forests. Some of the important steps and acts implemented by the Government for forest conservation in India are as follows:
- The Government has implemented the National Forest Policy. In this forest management, and local villagers work together to save forests and are paid for this work.
- The Indian Forest Act is implemented, which prohibits the clearances for industrialization in forests and setting fire in the forest.
- Forest Conservation Act is implemented, and according to this act, approval of the Government is required for any diversion of forest areas for any purposes.
- The Government has established the Forest Survey of India in which the Government can evaluate the country’s forest wealth through a survey to measure forest areas.
- Conservation of the Reserve forest was done by banning commercial exploitation.
- The Government has started several movements that have involvement of local people as they play a vital role in forest conservation. Chipko Movement (1972) was one of them.
- The Government has promoted the afforestation Scheme in which doing plantation is promoted in the barren land.
- Wildlife Protection Act is implemented, and it is to protect wild animals, birds, and plants.
In short, forests are a great blessing that is given to us by nature. Without them, we will be left with nothing. We must recognise how important the forest is and we should work together with the Government, take proper measures to fight the issue of deforestation and make the world a healthy place to live in because if there will be no forests, then there will be no life.