Essay on Natural Disasters: Natural calamities like earthquakes, floods, cyclones tsunamis and landslides have increased due to manmade factors like pollution, ozone depletion and global warming. The extreme exploitation of forests and natural resources has created a severe imbalance in our ecosystem, leading to many natural disasters. A warning management system issues early warnings of a possible calamity and networks with relief operations, rehabilitation support and rescue planning measures.
Essay on Natural Disasters 500 Words in English
Below we have provided Natural Disasters Essay in English, suitable for class 6, 7, 8, 9 & 10.
Natural disasters are major unpredicted events that have harmful effects on our society. They are severe, and they damage everything in their surrounding space. They pose a threat to the health and well-being of all living populations. Natural disasters include tsunamis, cyclones, earthquakes, landslides, floods, volcanic eruptions, and avalanches. Their destruction capacity can be calculated by their spatial extent.
The spatial extent helps in determining the level of severity of a natural hazard. With the rising population and the growth in the number of industries, man has exploited almost all the natural resources present on our planet. This has left our ecosystem in a state of imbalance. Nature is all-powerful, and there is no escape to its wrath. Our selfish activities have led to disasters like pollution, global warming, and ozone depletion. Natural disasters cause a loss in one form or another. We cannot prevent them, but we can certainly take some controlled steps to minimize their effects.
Types of Natural Disasters
Tsunami: A tsunami can be identified as a very large seismic wave in an ocean or a sea. It is caused by any kind of geophysical activity on the ocean floor. These activities can be earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and landslides. Tsunamis consist of multiple waves of high current capacity. Tsunami waves are very high when they reach the coastal areas. They can easily flood the shores. People living in these areas cannot outrun these gigantic waves. Loss of life and property follows.
Cyclone: Cyclones are violent storms that are associated with thunder, lightning and torrential rains. They are robust swirling winds which can bring a lot of damage to the affected areas. They do not have any specific direction and can have a speed of about 240-1200 miles per hour. Cyclones mostly hit the warm countries and can result in loss of life, damage to crops, fallen trees, and sinking of boats.
Earthquake: The sudden movement of Earth’s tectonic plate, which results in a shake or vibration of the ground is termed as an earthquake. It is mostly caused by the rupture of geological faults. However, volcanic eruptions and mine blasts can also initiate them.
Landslide: Movement of rock and debris down a sloped portion of land is known as a landslide. It is caused by rain, volcanoes, and earthquakes. Soil erosion (due to deforestation) makes the land unstable and also causes landslides. Landslides mostly occur in mountain areas. Therefore, life in hilly terrains is always susceptible to these kinds of events.
Avalanche: Avalanche is also known as a snow slide. It occurs when a mass of snow rapidly slides along a sloped region (mountain tops). These can also originate as a result of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. Avalanches commonly occur on convex slopes and also on slopes covered with grass. Surviving an avalanche is rare because here, death happens due to hypothermia.
Flood: A flood can be defined as the overflow of water on a dry piece of land. Floods can be caused by excessive rainfalls, breaking of dams, storm surges, and tsunamis. Besides being life-threatening, floods can cause sediment deposition and drainage congestion. Coastal plains are the worst-hit zones during floods.
Volcanic Eruption: A volcano is a passage in the crust of Earth through which magma (molten silicate rock) flows out to the surface of the earth. A volcanic eruption can release liquid lava, debris, ash and gases into the environment. These eruptions contribute to the various hazardous events that take place on the Earth’s surface. They can lead to glacier bursts, mud flows, and acid rain.
Disaster management is crucial during a natural disaster. It involves a well-combined plan of action that utilizes resources efficiently during a disaster. Even though the threat cannot be eliminated, its impact can be minimized to a larger extent. Proper disaster management covers both pre-disaster planning (prevention, preparation, and mitigation) and post-disaster planning (response, recovery, reconstruction). One of the greatest examples is the cyclones of Odisha. In 1999 super cyclone killed almost 13000 people. However, in 2013 when cyclone Phylum hit the coasts of Odisha with a similar intensity, the death toll was significantly reduced to 22.