Rainwater Harvesting Essay
Rainwater Harvesting is a form of harvest in which rainfall is gathered and deposited for potential use instead of being allowed from getting washed out. Rainwater can be collected from rivers or dome to a bottomless pit (well, pipe, or borer), aquifer, percolated pond or collected from dew or fog with filets or other devices.
The uses include greenhouse water, cattle irrigation, household use, indoor heating for houses, etc. The extracted water can also be used as drinking water, for long-term storage and other uses, including irrigation of groundwater.
India has received significant water supplies from nature. We have seasonal rivers like the Ganga, Brahmaputra, Yamuna, Beas and others with their affluent and distributors, in the north and eastern India. In central and peninsular India, we have spring and rain-fed rivers like the Godavari, Krishna, Narmada, Tapti and Kaveri.
Notwithstanding these immense available water supplies, we face a countrywide water crisis. The growing population, growing industrialization and developing agriculture have raised the need for water over the years. The greatest hope in our agriculture remains to be a monsoon. Water conservation has now been the day’s priority.
Rainwater Harvesting in India
In India, it is more than 4000 years since the rainwater was harvested. It is a simple method to capture and store rainwater. Since ancient times, rainwater irrigation systems have been used as a source of potable water, irrigated water as well as agricultural water.
The systems are simple to create from cheap, locally-produced materials and have proven popular in most areas. The most significant benefit of rainwater is that water quality is usually good, and no preparation before consuming is needed.
There are several methods to harness rainwater, ranging from relatively necessary to highly complex industrial systems. Usually, on the roof or the ground, rainwater is collected. The rate at which rainwater can be obtained from any system depends entirely on the strength of the precipitation and the area and general performance of the systems in operation.
Methods of Rainwater Harvesting
Some of the most common ways to harness and treat urban rainwater are:
Surface Runoff Harvesting: The most effective approach in urban areas is Surface Runoff harvesting. Soil water sources are redirected here and deposited on the soil or underground to be used for future uses in specially built reservoirs. This ensures the constant water supply for general domestic applications as well as clean, drinking water.
Rooftop Rainwater Harvesting: Rooftop rainwater harvesting is the most common alternative for urban harvesting. The system is accessible in a single home setting, hospitals, colleges and other academic buildings with more roof space. The rooftop rainwater storage idea is fundamental and easy to do. A container has to be installed or put under the surface of the roof, which collects and converts the rainwater from timber, bamboo or PVC pipes. While this is the basic principle, it is much more complex to harness industry-grade rooftop rainwater in large complexes.
Recharge Pits: The creation of refill pits to carry rainwater is also a growing rainwater harvesting method. Recharge boxes can be of any size and shape, depending on the strength of plumage in a given area. These recharge pits must be filled with gross sand, boulders and gravel which act as natural filters that protect the soil and the soil is usually carried by the first rainwater flood.
Advantages of Rainwater Harvesting
Rainwater harvesting, in particular in urban areas, has become a prevalent water management method. There are many benefits of gathering rainwater on the building roofs and storing it underground for further use. It preserves water as a reliable supply and avoids water from being lost as sewage.
During the dry season, it supplies water. It also recharges the aquifers or water bodies below the earth’s crust, increasing the volume of the table of underground water. This is very good for trees and other plants primarily originating from underwater.
Easy to maintain: The rainwater network gives the city some benefits. First of all, it helps people to use a more abundant carbon supply by collecting rainwater. It is significant, as potable water is not easy to recycle, and it helps to reduce waste. Rainwater networks are based on outdated technologies. Installation and maintenance costs are far smaller than water purification and recycling systems. Little-time and energy are needed for maintenance. The result is the collection of water which, even without purification, can be used substantially.
Reducing water bills: Water collected from rain may also be used for various non-drinking purposes. This leads to a substantial decrease in their utility bill for many households and small businesses. Agriculturally it is possible to extract rainwater without having to deplete local water supplies, meaning that specific projects can provide ample amounts of water. It also reduces the soil pressure in many places so that the field can grow again. It may in turn also be preserved in cisterns for use while water levels are at a constant low level.
Suitable for irrigation: There is also no need for the development of modern rainwater collection network facilities. The majority of the rooftops act as a functioning catchment area related to the harvesting network. Rainwater is free of many contaminants present in soil and thus suitable for irrigation and gardening. In reality, it is a smart idea to store vast reserves of gathered water in areas where forest fires are frequent in summer.
Reduces groundwater use: With population growth, water use is also growing continuously. The result is that many suburban communities and factories draw groundwater to satisfy their daily requirements. This has resulted in a loss of fresh water, which in some areas has risen to an immense low level.
Reduces floods and soil erosion: Rainwater in large storage tanks is collected in the rainy season and tends to mitigate flooding in some regions with low locations. It also helps to reduce soil degradation and surface water runoff from pesticides and rainwater fertilizers, which can result in healthier wetlands and streams.
The presence of adequate water in a region does not mean that there will be a water source indefinitely. When the favourable conditions go away due to natural causes or human activity, a shortage can occur.
It has been known and is still known that Cherrapunji provides the most considerable amount of plumage in the world but suffers from severe water shortages owing to significant deforestation and the absence of methods of protection of soil.
Free water streams along the slopes of hills have resulted in significant soil erosion. There are now numerous areas without greenery and trees. To collect water, people need to travel long distances. The condition would have been different if the rainwater had been harvested.
As sufficient rainwater storage and irrigation practices were adopted, water slowly started to return. If people’s efforts are supported by proper policy planning and enforcement, Indian water shortage can be resolved more efficiently.