Geology Syllabus For UPSC 2020
IAS Exam has one of the optional subjects as Geology. The subject has two papers – paper 1 and paper 2. The marks for each paper is 250, in a total of 500 marks, and the duration for each paper is three hours. It is easy to crack this optional subject for those candidates who have a keen interest in Geology. This article provides you with the latest Geology syllabus for UPSC IAS Mains 2020.
UPSC Geology Syllabus Paper – I
1. General Geology:
The Solar System, Meteorites, Origin and interior of the earth and age of earth; Volcanoes- causes and products, Volcanic belts; Earthquakes-causes, effects, Seismic zones of India; Island arcs, trenches and mid-ocean ridges; Continental drifts; Seafloor spreading, Plate tectonics; Isostasy.
2. Geomorphology and Remote Sensing:
Basic concepts of geomorphology; Weathering and soil formations; Landforms, slopes and drainage; Geomorphic cycles and their interpretation; Morphology and its relation to structures and lithology; Coastal geomorphology; Applications of geomorphology in mineral prospecting, civil engineering; Hydrology and environmental studies; Geomorphology of Indian subcontinent. Aerial photographs and their interpretation-merits and limitations; The Electromagnetic spectrum; Orbiting satellites and sensor systems; Indian Remote Sensing Satellites; Satellites data products; Applications of remote sensing in geology; The Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Global Positioning System (GPS) – its applications.
3. Structural Geology:
Principles of geologic mapping and map reading, Projection diagrams, Stress and strain ellipsoid and stress-strain relationships of elastic, plastic and viscous materials; Strain markers in deformed rocks; Behaviour of minerals and rocks under deformation conditions; Folds and faults classification and mechanics; Structural analysis of folds, foliations, lineations, joints and faults, unconformities; Timerelationship between crystallization and deformation.
Species- definition and nomenclature; Megafossils and Microfossils; Modes of preservation of fossils; Different kinds of microfossils; Application of microfossils in correlation, petroleum exploration, paleoclimatic and paleoceanographic studies; Evolutionary trend in Hominidae, Equidae and Proboscidae; Siwalik fauna; Gondwana flora and fauna and its importance; Index fossils and their significance.
5. Indian Stratigraphy:
Classification of stratigraphic sequences: lithostratigraphic, biostratigraphic, chronostratigraphic and magnetostratigraphic and their interrelationships; Distribution and classification of Precambrian rocks of India; Study of stratigraphic distribution and lithology of Phanerozoic rocks of India with reference to fauna, flora and economic importance; Major boundary problems- Cambrian/Precambrian, Permian/Triassic, Cretaceous/Tertiary and Pliocene/Pleistocene; Study of climatic conditions, paleogeography and igneous activity in the Indian subcontinent in the geological past; Tectonic framework of India; Evolution of the Himalayas.
6. Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology:
Hydrologic cycle and genetic classification of water; Movement of subsurface water; Springs; Porosity, permeability, hydraulic conductivity, transmissivity and storage coefficient, classification of aquifers; Water-bearing characteristics of rocks; Ground-water chemistry; Salt water intrusion; Types of wells; Drainage basin morphometry; Exploration for groundwater; Groundwater recharge; Problems and management of groundwater; Rainwater harvesting; Engineering properties of rocks; Geolo-gical investigations for dams, tunnels highways, railway and bridges; Rock as construction material; Landslides-causes, prevention and rehabilitation; Earthquake-resistant structures
UPSC Geology Syllabus Paper – II
Classification of crystals into systems and classes of symmetry; International system of crystallographic notation; Use of projection diagrams to represent crystal symmetry; Elements of X-ray crystallography. Physical and chemical characters of rock forming silicate mineral groups; Structural classification of silicates; Common minerals of igneous and metamorphic rocks; Minerals of the carbonate, phosphate, sulphide and halide groups; Clay minerals. Optical properties of common rock forming minerals; Pleochroism, extinction angle, double refraction, birefringence, twinning and dispersion in minerals.
2. Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology:
Generation and crystallization of magmas; Crystallization of albite-anorthite, diopside-anorthite and diopside-wollastonite-silica systems; Bowen?s Reaction Principle; Magmatic differentation and assimilation; Petrogenetic significance of the textures and structures of igneous rocks; Petro-graphy and petrogenesis of granite, syenite, diorite, basic and ultrabasic groups, charnockite, anorthosite and alkaline rocks; Carbonatites; Deccan volcanic province. Types and agents of metamorphism; Metamorphic grades and zones; Phase rule; Facies of regional and contact metamorphism; ACF and AKF diagrams; Textures and structures of metamorphic rocks; Metamorphism of arenaceous, argillaceous and basic rocks; Minerals assemblages Retrograde metamorphism; Metasomatism and granitisation, migmatites, Granulite terrains of India.
3. Sedimentary Petrology:
Sediments and Sedimentary rocks: Processes of formation; digenesis and lithification; Clastic and non-clastic rockstheir classification, petrography and depositional environment; Sedimentary facies and provenance; Sedimentary structures and their significance; Heavy minerals and their significance; Sedimentary basins of India.
4. Economic Geology:
Ore, ore minerals and gangue, tenor of ore, classification of ore deposits; Process of formation of minerals deposits; Controls of ore localization; Ore textures and structu-res; Metallogenic epochs and provinces; Geology of the important Indian deposits of aluminium, chromium, copper, gold, iron, lead zinc, manganese, titanium, uranium and thorium and industrial minerals; Deposits of coal and petroleum in India; National Mineral Policy; Conservation and utilization of mineral resources; Marine mineral resources and Law of Sea.
5. Mining Geology:
Methods of prospecting-geological, geophysical, geochemical and geobotanical; Techniques of sampling; Estimation of reserves or ore; Methods of exploration and mining metallic ores, industrial minerals, marine mineral resources and building stones; Mineral beneficiation and ore dressing.
6. Geochemistry and Environmental Geology:
Cosmic abundance of elements; Composition of the planets and meteorites; Structure and composition of Earth and distribution of elements; Trace elements; Elements of crystal chemistrytypes of chemical bonds, coordination number; Isomorphism and polymorphism; Elementary thermodynamics. Natural hazards-floods, mass wasting, costal hazards, earthquakes and volcanic activity and mitigation; Environmental impact of urbanization, mining, industrial and radioactive waste disposal, use of fertilizers, dumping of mine waste and fly ash; Pollution of ground and surface water, marine pollution; Environment protection – legislative measures in India; Sea level changes: causes and impact.
Also, Check Other UPSC IAS Optional Subject’s Syllabus
Preparation Tips for the UPSC Geology Optional Subject 2020
- Geology is not a popular choice of subjects as it demands a high level of specialised knowledge. So, candidates who have a background in the subject should ideally opt for it.
- Geology is not a subject that frequently overlaps with general study topics. SO candidates who are seeking an option to start afresh with the subject, solely for the examination should ideally choose a different optional.
- Previous statistics indicate that it is a highly scoring subject.
- At least eight hours of preparation every day for a minimum of five months is highly recommended.
- Each topic of study in the syllabus is very important in geology. No topic is to be left incomplete.
- The subject is easy to follow and understand all key topics, but difficult to comprehend with the vastness. Hence, balancing time with the depth of content is very important.
- Before beginning preparation with the actual syllabus, it’s wise to brush up all important topics from the graduation books.
- To prepare well for the exam, writing elaborate notes won’t help much. You can learn faster through flowcharts and answer relevant diagrams.
- Prepare good, informative short notes while studying. Short notes help in revision too.
- Reading through the reference material may be quite sufficient for the subject, as it isn’t too dynamic.
- Recent news about the subject, relevance with present scenarios also weighs more marks in the examination.
- Conduct research for the latest updates on a topic.
- Many topics need a reference from multiple sources to craft a good informative write up about the concerned topic. Memorise important factual data. There are a lot of such data in geology to be remembered.
Include relevant diagrams and cite good examples to support your answers.
UPSC Geology Books
- Book on ‘Trends in Objective Geology’ written by Aussif Sayeed
- A Text Book of Geology, written by P.K. Mukherjee
- Reference book on Concise Geology, written by P.K. Mukherjee
- Highly recommended reference book on ‘Geologic Settings and Petroleum Systems of India’s East Coast Offshore Basins : Concepts and Applications’ written and comprehended by Ravi,Bastia
- Reference on Geological Maps by D.K. Awasthi
- Book on ‘Delta Sedimentation: East Coast of India’ written in depth by Singh, I.B. & Swamy, A.S.R.
- Book on ‘Dimensions of Himalayan Geology’ written by Biyani and A.K.
- Reference book on ‘Early Man in Eastern Himalayas: North-East India and Nepal’ written thoroughly by Sharma and A. K.
- Ref. book on ‘Mineral Exploration: Recent Strategies’ by S. Rajendran.
Also, Read Other UPSC 2020 Articles
|UPSC Eligibility||UPSC Admit Card||UPSC Application Form|
|UPSC Syllabus||UPSC Exam Pattern||NCERT Books in Hindi|
|IAS Preparation||Free UPSC Material||UPSC Toppers|
|NCERT Books||IAS Books||Essay for UPSC|