The language Hindi finds its connection with the word ‘ Hind’ which indirectly poses a reference to the Indus River. To put it short, Hind meant a land or nation where the Indus River was flowing.
The early invasions in our country going back to almost the 11th century brought in the Persians from far off lands to explore places in our country. They were the ones who designated the invaded regions as the lands where the Indus River was flowing, hence the name of the language came to be known as ‘Hindi’.
Hindi and English are considered the official languages of our country. In all the government related transactions, papers, notifications and documents, we can find both languages – English and Hindi present at every place. This apart from the regional state of every language is the 3 language norm applied in most of the states of our country.
UPSC Hindi Mains Syllabus – Optional Paper
Answers must be written in Hindi.
1.History of Hindi Language and Nagari Lipi.
- Grammatical and applied forms of Apbhransh, Awahatta & Arambhik Hindi.
- Development of Braj and Awadhi as literary language during medieval period.
- Early form of Khari-boli in Siddha-Nath Sahitya, Khusero, Sant Sahitaya, Rahim etc. and Dakhni Hindi.
- Development of Khari-boli and Nagari Lipi during 19th Century.
- Standardisation of Hindi Bhasha & Nagari Lipi.
- Development of Hindi as national Language during freedom movement.
- The development of Hindi as a National Language of Union of India.
- Scientific & Technical development of Hindi Language.
- Prominent dialects of Hindi and their inter relationship.
- Salient features of Nagari Lipi and the efforts for its reform & Standard form of Hindi.
- Grammatical structure of Standard Hindi.
2. History of Hindi Literature.
I. The relevance and importance of Hindi literature and tradition of writing History of Hindi Literature.
II. Literary trends of the following four periods of history of Hindi Literature.
A : Adikal-Sidh, Nath and Raso Sahitya.
Prominent poets-Chandvardai, Khusaro, Hemchandra, Vidyapati.
B : Bhaktikal-Sant Kavyadhara, Sufi Kavyadhara, Krishna Bhaktidhara and Ram Bhaktidhara.
Prominent Poets-Kabir, Jayasi, Sur & Tulsi.
C: Ritikal-Ritikavya, Ritibaddhakavya & Riti Mukta Kavya.
Prominent Poets-Keshav, Bihari, Padmakar and Ghananand.
D : Adhunik Kal
a. Renaissance, the development of Prose, Bharatendu Mandal.
b. Prominent Writers : Bharatendu, Bal Krishna Bhatt & Pratap Narain Mishra.
c. Prominent trends of modern Hindi Poetry : Chhayavad, Pragativad, Proyogvad, Nai Kavita, Navgeet and Contemporary poetry and Janvadi Kavita.
Prominent Poets : Maithili Sharan Gupta, Prasad, Nirala, Mahadevi, Dinkar, Agyeya, Muktibodh, Nagarjun.
III. Katha Sahitya
A. Upanyas & Realism
B. The origin and development of Hindi Novels.
C. Prominent Novelists : Premchand, Jainendra, Yashpal, Renu and Bhism Sahani.
D. The origin and development of Hindi short story.
E. Prominent short Story Writers : Premchand, Prasad, Agyeya, Mohan Rakesh & Krishna Shobti.
IV. Drama & Theatre
A. The origin & Development of Hindi Drama.
B. Prominent Dramatists : Bharatendu, Prasad, Jagdish Chandra Mathur, Ram Kumar Verma, Mohan Rakesh.
C. The development of Hindi Theature.
A : The origin and development of Hindi criticism : Saiddhantik, Vyavharik, Pragativadi, Manovishleshanvadi & Nai Alochana.
B : Prominent critics : Ramchandra Shukla, Hajari Prasad Dwivedi, Ram Vilas Sharma & Nagendra.
VI. The other forms of Hindi prose-Lalit Nibandh, Rekhachitra, Sansmaran, Yatra-vrittant.
Answers must be written in Hindi.
This paper will require first hand reading of prescribed texts and will test the critical ability of the candidates.
- Kabir : Kabir Granthawali, Ed, Shyam Sundar Das (First hundred Sakhis.)
- Surdas : Bhramar Gitsar, Ed. Ramchandra Shukla (First hundred Padas)
- Tulsidas : Ramchrit Manas (Sundar Kand) Kavitawali (Uttar Kand).
- Jayasi : Padmawat Ed. Shyam Sundar Das (Sinhal Dwip Khand & Nagmativiyog Khand)
- Bihari : Bihari Ratnakar Ed. Jagnnath Prasad Ratnakar (First 100 Dohas)
- Maithili Sharan Gupta : Bharat Bharati
- Prasad : Kamayani (Chinta and Sharddha Sarg)
- Nirala : Rag-Virag, Ed. Ram Vilas Sharma (Ram Ki Shakti Puja & Kukurmutta).
- Dinkar : Kurushetra
- Agyeya : Angan Ke Par Dwar (Asadhya Vina)
- Muktiboth : Brahma Rakshas
- Nagarjun : Badal Ko Ghirte Dekha Hai, Akal Ke Bad, Harijan Gatha.
- Bharatendu : Bharat Durdasha
- Mohan Rakesh : Ashad Ka Ek Din
- Ramchandra Shukla : Chintamani (Part I)
(Kavita Kya Hai] Shraddha Aur Bhakti)
- Dr. Satyendra : Nibandh Nilaya-Bal Krishna Bhatt, Premchand, Gulab Rai, Hajari Prasad Dwivedi, Ram Vilas Sharma, Agyeya, Kuber Nath Rai.
- Premchand : Godan, Premchand ki Sarvashreshtha Kahaniyan, Ed. Amrit Rai, Manjusha – Premchand ki Sarvashreshtha Kahaniyan, Ed. Amrit Rai
- Prasad : Skandgupta
- Yashpal : Divya
- Phaniswar Nath Renu : Maila Anchal
- Mannu Bhandari : Mahabhoj
- Rajendra Yadav : Ek Dunia Samanantar (All Stories)
Hindi Speaking population
Hindi acts as a common language that connects the regional language speaking population of different states. This apart from English acts as a common language among masses in our country. It has a wide population base with many states speaking this language.
It is considered one of the most prominent and widely spoken languages in northern, eastern and western parts of India. Several parts of southern India too are wide speaking bases of Hindi, but relatively less compared to other parts of the country. Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh apart from Maharashtra and Gujarat are states that consider Hindi to be a very important language.
It is quite interesting to note that unlike Urdu, Hindi is written from left to right, just like the English language. The sentences have verbs at the end of their sentences. It is also equally important to note that there is gender differentiation made in the sentences. The usage of verbs and adjectives also fluctuates similarly with the gender usage.
The ease of the language can be understood by its flawless grammar. Also, it’s interesting to explore a lot of similar and representative English words in the Hindi language. It is due to the British effect that many words that are a part of the English language have become part and parcel of the Hindi language over many years. You’ll also find a lot of elaborate word usage in the language. Many of them need to be cut short in order to be understood correctly.
Hindi like many other Indian languages has been derived directly from Sanskrit and Prakrit languages. The presence of Persian, Arabic, English and south Indian languages can be experienced in the spoken language. Hindi is written in the Devanagari script.
Also, Hindi is one such language that has many dialects, much more than we can possibly think of. The reason behind this is the influence of the regional language with the spoken Hindi language and the blend that ultimately lends a regional dialect of the main Hindi language. So you’ll find more than a hundred dialects pertaining to the language.
Formal and informal words are a part of the language where one needs to take care while speaking. This mostly applies to a novice, as an experienced speaker sets himself rolling in the language.
It was almost 400 AD years back when Kalidasa wrote Vikramorvashiyam in the Hindi language. Hindi is a favorite among authors and writers and an entire dynasty of writers, poets, authors etc could be listed out. Premchand, Sumitranandan Panth, Maithili sharan gupta, etc belonging to different eras are some of the most prominent names that have brought laurels to the language.