Kannada is one of the most popular languages of south India. Kannada is a south Indian Dravidian language along with four other Dravidian languages namely Telugu, Tamil and Malayalam. It can be seen that the written script of Kannada and Telugu are almost similar with some striking differences.
Till the 10th century BC, the Kannada that was known was very different from what it is today. It has undergone several transformations phase by phase, in centuries together and finally known to be the Kannada that is relevant today. From 15th century onward, the ancient Kannada was totally replaced towards a more, modernism enabled Kannada complete in all forms for every hand of literature embedded within.
UPSC Kannada Literature Optional Paper I Syllabus
Answers must be written in Kannada
A. History of Kannada Language
What is Language? General characteristics of Language. Dravidian Family of Languages and its specific features, Antiquity of Kannada Language Different Phases of its Development.
Dialects of Kannada Language: Regional and social various aspects of development of Kannada Language: phonological and Semantic changes. Language borrowing.
B. History of Kannada Literature
Ancient Kannada literature: Influence and Trends. Poets for study: Specified poets from Pampa to Ratnakara Varni are to be studied in the light of contents, form and expression: Pampa, Janna, and Nagachandra.
Medieval Kannada literature: Influence and Trends.
Vachana literature : Basavanna, Akka Mahadevi.
Medieval Poets : Harihara, Ragha-vanka, Kumar-Vyasa.
Dasa literature : Purandra and Kanaka.
Sangataya : Ratnakaravarni
C. Modern Kannada literature
Influence, trends and idealogies, Navodaya, Pragatishila, Navya, Dalita and Bandaya.
A. Poetics and literary criticism
Definition and concepts of poetry : Word, Meaning, Alankara, Reeti, Rasa, Dhwani, Auchitya.
Interpretations of Rasa Sutra.
Modern Trends of literary criticism : Formalist, Historical, Marxist, Feminist, Post-colonial criticism.
B. Cultural History of Karnataka
Contribution of Dynasties to the culture of Karnataka : Chalukyas of Badami and Kalyani, Rashtrakutas, Hoysalas, Vijayanagara rulers, in literary context.
Major religions of Karnataka and their cultural contributions.
Arts of Karnataka : Sculpture, Architecture, Painting, Music, Dance-in the literary context.
Unification of Karnataka and its impact on Kannada literature.
IAS candidates who are targeting UPSC Exam may check the linked article.
UPSC Kannada Literature Optional Paper II Syllabus
Answers must be written in Kannada.
The paper will require first-hand reading of the Texts prescribed and will be designed to test the critical ability of the candidates.
A. OLD KANNADA LITERATURE
1. Vikramaarjuna Vijaya of Pampa (cantos 12 & 13), (Mysore University Pub.)
2. Vaddaraadhane (Sukumaraswamyia Kathe, Vidyutchorana Kathe)
B. Medieval Kannada Literature :
1. Vachana Kammata, Ed: K. Marulasiddappa K.R. Nagaraj (Bangalore University Pub.)
2. Janapriya Kanakasamputa, Ed. D. Javare Gowda (Kannada and Culture Directorate, Bangalore)
3. Nambiyannana Ragale, Ed., T.N. Sreekantaiah (Ta.Vem. Smaraka Grantha Male, Mysore)
4. Kumaravyasa Bharata : Karna Parva (Mysore University)
5. Bharatesha Vaibhava Sangraha Ed. Ta. Su. Shama Rao (Mysore University)
A. Modern Kannada Literature
1. Poetry : Hosagannada Kavite, Ed : G.H. Nayak (Kannada Saahitya Parishattu, Bangalore)
2. Novel : Bettada Jeeva-Shivarama Karanta Madhavi-Arupama Niranjana Odalaala-Devanuru Mahadeva
3. Short Story : Kannada Sanna Kathegalu, Ed. G.H. Nayak (Sahitya Academy, New Delhi).
4. Drama : Shudra Tapaswi-Kuvempu. Tughalak-Girish Karnad.
5. Vichara Saahitya : Devaru-A.N. Moorty Rao (Pub : D.V.K. Moorty, Mysore.)
B. Folk Literature
1. Janapada Swaroopa-Dr. H.M. Nayak. (Ta. Vem. Smaraka Grantha Male, Mysore.)
2. Janapada Geetaanjali-Ed.D. Javare Gowda. (Pub : Sahitya Academy, New Delhi.)
3. Kannada Janapada Kathegalu-Ed. J.S. Paramashivaiah, (Mysore University.)
4. Beedi Makkalu Beledo. Ed. Kalegowda Nagavara (Pub : Bangalore University.)
5. Savirada Ogatugalu-Ed : S.G. Imrapura.
Classical language Kannada
Kannada is also declared one of the official languages of our country. The spoken form of Kannada is quite different in the state itself. The form of Kannada that is spoken in the northern parts of the state is very different from that spoken within the southern belt. Also since Karnataka shares a border with Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu in a prominent way, the language can be seen spoken in many regions of these neighbouring states as well.
Kannadigas or the local Kannada speaking population across the globe can be estimated to be a good 45 million according to statistical estimates. In the top 40 languages that are most spoken across the globe, Kannada finds a mention too. The written script of the Kannada language is known since almost 2000 years. The fascinating point of the language is that however the spoken dialect of the language is, it can be easily reflected even in its written form. The phonetics can be easily delivered as is in the written form of the language.
It was in the year 2008 that Kannada was declared as a classical language by the government. Earlier the Kannada speaking state of Karnataka was named as the Mysore state, later it was re-christened as Karnataka state. Kannada is also the third oldest language in the country. After Sanskrit and Tamil, Kannada enjoys this status.
Literature works in the language
The oldest dictionary for reference in Kannada language was compiled in the year 1894 by a German. Several noted writers and authors of Karnataka have given invaluable and enormous contribution to the language of Kannada. There have been various noted literature stalwarts in the language who have received the Jnanapith award for their contribution for the language.
The Vijayanagara Empire and the Wodeyar rulers are the famous names and the most prominent contributors to the flourishing of the Kannada language. It is because of them that the language has travelled across the country and waved across the globe.
Almost as early as 6th century BC, the Kaviraja Marga was written. At that time, the most popular religion in the state was Jainism so it’s very obvious that there have been numerous contributions by Jain writers to Kannada literature.
After 12th century, Jainism secured a decline in the state leading the way to many new writers from different paths to put a conquest on the literature scene. Some of the most famous works dating back from the ancient days till modern era are tremendous, noteworthy among them are Ramadhanya Charithe, Viveka Chintamani, Rajashekara vilasa, Hari Vamsa, Tollu Gatti, Gari, Naadaleele, Vaishakhi, Dehali, Sri Ramayana Darshanam, Mankutimmana Kagga, Garbhagudi, Kanooru Heggadathi, Dharmashri, Vamshavriksha, Karvalo, chidambara Rahasya etc.